Construction and Demolition Waste Management

From Rising Citizen

(Article by Anu Govind)

(Disclaimer: this information is compiled by engaged citizens working to find solutions for C&D waste)

Varthur Lake being encroached upon by addition of mud to its banks
Managing ‘Construction and Demolition Waste’ or C&D Waste is a big challenge in Bengaluru. With huge amounts of construction, development, and demolition happening in the city, this waste stream is causing a humongous problem. Everyday, large parts of various lakes are disappearing and ugly mountains are appearing all over the place. Today we can see this C&D waste dumped on street corners, empty sites, footpaths and pretty much any convenient empty spot in the city. The shared pictures and the links to the newspaper articles that they were published in, illustrate the enormity of this problem in the Whitefield area. (Links:,
Construction debris dumped on to a plot next to Kundanahalli Lake

1 What Constitutes C&D Waste?

-         Cement and Concrete

-         Broken Bricks

-         Broken Cement Plaster

-         Steel (From RCC)

-         Rubble

-         Broken Stone

-         Broken Timber

-         Soil

-         Rock/Gravel from Excavations

2 How is C&D Waste Generated?

-         Demolition of existing structures

-         Renovation of existing buildings

-         Construction of new buildings

-         Excavation/reconstruction of asphalt/concrete roads

-         Construction of fly-over bridges/subways etc.

-         Renovation/Installation of water/telephone/power/sewer lines etc.

-         Collapse of a building due to an accident/natural calamity

3 How can a C&D Processing Facility help the City?

Hub and Spoke Model for C&D Processing Facility
There will be an authorized destination for the C&D waste, so that our lakes and public spaces are spared. This setup is compliant with C&D Waste Management Rules of 2016 which were published by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change last year. (

3.1 Proposed Solution – Hub and Spoke Model

-         Step I: Authorized Destination Site Identification (HUB)

  • Identify 2-3 sites for handling C&D Waste in different parts of the city such that site distance is optimum from area where the C&D waste is generated
  1. Else transportation cost will be a huge challenge!
  • Have a recycling /processing facility close to the site
  1. Authorized contractors (for large projects) come and drop the material at the processing facility
  2. From the ward collection point, BBMP to collect and send to the processing facility
  •  Provide all the facilities as mentioned in Schedule 1 of the C&D Waste Management Rules of 2016
  • Keep track of the material inflow and outflow

-         Step II: In each ward identify an area  (SPOKE) that will be the drop-off point for a small quantity generator of C&D waste

  • Periodically BBMP to pick up waste from these sites and drop it off at the closest site for processing/recycling
  • Keep track of material inflow and outflow

-         Step III: Publish all the information on the public domain

-         Step IV: Penalize for non-compliance

3.1.1 Economic Advantages:
  • Improvement of the income situation for the recycling industry
  • More jobs for workers with low qualification levels
  • Recovery of costs associated with transportation and tipping fees
  • Good quality of waste materials stimulated by better prices
  • Less waste ends up in landfills, increasing lifetime and reducing costs
  • Return of waste materials into the materials cycle
  • Lower prices than new materials
3.1.2 Environmental Advantages:
  • Less primary resources, smaller raw materials' warehouse
  • Reduction of CO2 emissions
  • Less production energy when recycling
  • Smaller transport distances
  • Recycling discourages illegal dumping
  • Reduces negative environmental effects upon groundwater, surface-water, air, flora and fauna, and landscape
3.1.3 Social and Health Advantages:
  • Reduction of proliferation of pests if C&D waste is deposited in controlled sites
  • Avoids emissions into the air or leaching of toxic substances into the soil
  • Unstable dumps and deposits are dangerous for civilians and workers
  • Uncontrolled incineration of C&D waste can cause emissions of toxic compounds
  • Lower growth rate of landfills and more space for productive uses
3.1.4 Recycling and Reuse of C&D Waste Material:

C&D waste can be used to make ‘manufactured sand’, pavers, bricks etc. The video below shows the solutions offered by a Bangalore based vendor called Rock Crystal.

The premises of Rock Crystal are located in Chickkajala (north Bangalore), and has the capacity to process 1000 tons per day (TPD) of waste. They work on a PPP model. The videos in the link below explains how C&D waste can be handled and converted to products.

(Though the unit has the capacity to handle 1000 TPD, C&D waste is not reaching this destination)

 Another Solution from a Delhi Based Company:

4 References and Additional Material: 

4.1 C&D WM Rules 2016  


Here are some of the key points covered by this ruling:

I. Page 5 of the Rules

(9) Duties of State Government or Union Territory Administration-

(1) The Secretary in-charge of development in the State Government or Union territory administration shall prepare their policy document with respect to management of construction and demolition of waste in accordance with the provisions of these rules within one year from date of final notification of these rules.

(1 year has elapsed after these rules came out in Mar 2016. However, no government policy available yet)

(2) The concerned department in the State Government dealing with land shall be responsible for providing suitable sites for setting up of the storage, processing and recycling facilities for construction and demolition waste.

(Sites have been suggested on paper, but nothing exists on the ground)

II. Page 4 of the Rules

(8) Duties of State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee-

(1) State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee shall monitor the implementation of these rules by the concerned local bodies and the competent authorities and the annual report shall be sent to the Central Pollution Control Board and the State Government or Union Territory or any other State level nodal agency identified by the State Government or Union Territory administration for generating State level comprehensive data.

(KSPCB has not ensured that this rule is implemented)

III. Schedule 1 gives the clear guidelines for:

Criteria for Site Selection for Storage and Processing or Recycling Facilities for Construction and Demolition Waste

[See Rule 7(1)]

-         The processing site to be fenced

-         Approach road shall be concreted or paved

-         Provision of weigh bridge to measure quantity of waste bought in

(None of these provisions exist in any of the proposed sites)

4.2 BBMP Notification (March 2016)- Guidelines for C&D Waste Management:

I.                   BBMP came out with an official notification on March 3rd 2016 on the ‘Guidelines on Construction and Demolition Waste Management’:


II. May 2016

A new circular on May 7th 2016 was a notification of waste disposal sites:


(No BBMP authorized site is functional yet. No Official on the ground is aware of any authorized C&D sites. Tenders have been called for without defining the destination site)

4.3 Karnataka State Pollution Control Board is responsible for ensuring the implementation of the C&D waste management rule 2016


(No action has been taken by kspcb to implement this rule)

4.4 High Court Direction (November 2015)

HC has directed BBMP to identify sites and seek proposals for C&D Management


4.5 How C&D Waste Dumping is killing so many lakes in Bangalore